What really happens if there is no Brexit deal?
Taking your car abroad
In a sentence You’ll have to request a green card from your insurer if driving to Europe after 29 March.
Currently, a driver of a UK-registered car is allowed to drive anywhere in the EU, the EEA (European Economic Area), Switzerland and Serbia, and not have to carry a green card that proves you have insurance cover.
But if the UK leaves without a deal, all changes and drivers will be expected to carry a green card when in mainland Europe and Ireland. They are likely to be issued by an insurance company for free, but the industry is warning it could take up to a month to obtain one, so if no deal happens and you’re booked to go away with the car this Easter, you will need to act fast.
The official advice from the UK government is: “From 29 March 2019, in the event that there is no EU exit deal … drivers of UK-registered vehicles will need to carry a motor insurance green card when driving in the EU and EEA.”
Note that a green card (and they do have to be on green paper) typically lasts only 90 days, and if your insurance renewal comes up while you’re abroad, you will need one for each cover period. The card applies to the vehicle, not the driver.
Direct Line insurance says: “In the event of a no-deal Brexit, we have plans to ensure customers are provided with a green card if they drive in Europe on or after 29 March. Customers will need to contact us at least two weeks in advance of when they are due to travel.”
In Ireland, where 30,000 drivers commute across the border daily, and where shoppers from Dublin frequently head to Belfast and vice versa, the green cards issued are likely to be valid for one year. Irish insurers have prepared 400,000 green card forms in the event of no deal, and some UK insurers are now proactively sending green cards to customers in Northern Ireland.
Insurers say they are already incurring hefty costs to organise the cards and prepare their staff in call centres to handle an inevitable barrage of questions. The Association of British Insurers says it would much rather none of this was happening. “It remains the case that insurers do not want a no-deal Brexit; it would be bad for the economy and bad for our customers,” it says. “We continue to hope these arrangements are never needed and urge the government, UK parliament and EU27 to agree an orderly way forward.”
Meanwhile, if your UK-registered car sports an EU flag on its numberplate, you might want to buy a GB sticker. From 29 March, if the UK leaves without a deal, the government says: “You may need a GB sticker even if your vehicle has a europlate [displaying both the EU flag and a GB sign]. You will not need a GB sticker to drive outside the UK if you replace a europlate with a numberplate that features the GB sign without the EU flag.”
Driving with a UK licence when abroad
In a sentence You will have to buy an International Driving Permit to drive in Europe, at a price of £5.50, with different ones required for France and Spain.
If there is no deal with the EU then recognition of UK driving licences in the EU ends. So British drivers will have to go to the Post Office and obtain an International Driving Permit (IDP), which you will need to carry with you in conjunction with your UK driving licence.
There is a curious twist to the international rules which means that if, say, you drive through France and into Spain, you’ll need two different IDPs. That’s because the 1949 IDP convention covers Spain, Malta, Cyprus and Ireland, while the 1968 IDP convention covers all other EU countries, plus Norway and Switzerland.
So at the Post Office you have to specify which permit you want, depending on which country you are visiting, or get both if driving between France and Spain or Portugal and Spain.
And just to add a little more complexity, the permit you buy for Portugal will last three years, but in Spain you’ll have to renew it every year.
The Post Office has set up a webpage dedicated to this process. But you can’t buy it online – you’ll have to head to a Post Office with your driving licence, passport and a passport-sized photograph.
As regards driving back and forth between the UK and Ireland, there has been significant confusion.
Last September the government’s official position was that an IDP would be required if driving across the Northern Ireland border. But in January this advice was withdrawn, and it now says: “If you hold a UK driving licence you should not need an IDP to drive in Ireland from 29 March as Ireland does not currently require IDPs to be held by driving licence holders from non-EU countries.”
It was also revealed this week that British citizens resident in Ireland – estimated to number about 300,000 – will be required to swap their UK driving licence for an Irish one at a fee of €55 (£48) if there is no deal on Brexit.
European Health Insurance Card
In a sentence They will no longer be valid and buying travel insurance will become essential.
For years, Brits travelling, studying and working in Europe have relied on the European Health Insurance Card (Ehic) that entitled the holder to state-provided medical treatment if they fell ill or had an accident in an EU/EEA country.
Two weeks ago, the UK government issued its latest advice on healthcare when travelling abroad, warning that if the UK leaves with no deal, our Ehics will no longer be valid.
It has advised anyone travelling on or after 29 March to any of the EU countries as well as Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein, to buy travel insurance to cover healthcare “just as you would if visiting a non-EU country”.
It has said it is seeking agreements with countries on healthcare arrangements for UK nationals after Brexit day, but no such agreements are in place yet. Those studying or working temporarily abroad already won’t be able to buy travel insurance as they have already left. They will probably just have to risk it as, alternatively, they face having to buy expensive local insurance, which will run into several hundred pounds.
Ehic was never intended to cover long-term residents who had moved to another country, but many relied on it particularly if they spent only part of the year abroad, or for when they had just arrived in a new country.
Visas and travel
In a sentence: Visa-free travel to Europe ends, paving the way for possible £52 90-day visas.
It’s arguably the craziest prospect of all, but if the Brexit impasse is not broken, British tourists face having to apply for a visa to visit most of mainland Europe.
That was the warning from Brussels this week where reports say there is a very real prospect of UK citizens having to apply for a €60 (£52) visa to enter the Schengen area, which includes most of the EU countries we generally visit.
The problem concerns talks that have become mired in a dispute with Spain over whether the British overseas territory Gibraltar should be described as a “colony” in the EU’s statute book.
If no solution can be found the UK will be left in legal limbo as it is not on the list of countries where a visa is required to visit the EU, nor on a list of countries with an exemption.
It could mean UK citizens heading to Europe for Easter having to pay for a Schengen visa or be left waiting for a bilateral deal. In a tit-for-tat move, EU citizens coming to the UK would face a similar scheme. Further down the line, the EU is proposing an electronic visa waiver system valid for three years at €7.
Questions also remain about how travellers will be treated when they arrive in Europe. Portugal is the only EU state so far that has said it will create a third lane at airport passport control to speed Brits through. Without a deal, they face having to queue with all non-EU passport holders, with the inevitable long delays.
In a sentence The government promises to keep EU flight delay payouts, but airlines could use changes to fight having to pay out.
European Union flight compensation regulations have been fought in almost every UK court, so could a no-deal Brexit give the airlines another opportunity to stop paying passengers after a lengthy delay or cancellation?
That’s the warning from lawyers this week – in spite of government promises that in the event of no deal, passenger flight rights will remain. The EU Withdrawal Act provides that EU regulations – as applied now – will convert into domestic law, meaning the same rules will continue to apply until legislators in the UK decide otherwise.
On the face of it, passengers will still be able to claim to up to €600 (£536) in compensation when airline problems cause their flight to land more than three hours late, or is cancelled. They will also be entitled to meals and hotels if the delays are caused by problems beyond the airline’s control.
However, with just over a month to go, specialist flight compensation lawyers say there has been no explanation as to how it will work. The compensation rules currently apply to all airlines based in the EU, and flights out of EU airports on non-EU-based carriers.
The wording of the new legislation would have to watertight, says Coby Benson, solicitor at Bott and Co, because in the past the airlines have used any ambiguity to dismiss legitimate claims, and have fought them through the courts.
“We anticipate that if the new adopted legislation is not entirely clear, the airlines will seize upon this to allow them to wriggle out of paying. This has been the history of this legislation from the start, and I can only foresee further court battles. If the airlines spot a get-out opportunity, they will try to use it to their advantage,” he says.
In a sentence The EU pet passport scheme ends for UK travellers and their cats and dogs – replaced with expensive tests every time they travel.
If you were planning to take your dog or cat on holiday to Europe after a no-deal Brexit, you may want to think again after you have read this.
The UK’s participation in the European Union pet passport scheme in effect ends on 29 March. It means that cat and dog owners (the documents also mention ferrets) will need to show that their animals are healthy – and produce new documents to support their animal’s health when they arrive in the EU.
Pet owners will also have to show that their animal been effectively vaccinated against rabies by undergoing a rabies antibody titration test at least 30 days after inoculation, and no fewer than three months before they enter the European Union.
Pets will need to travel with an animal health certificate issued by an officially registered vet. This certificate can only be issued up to 10 days prior to entry into an EU member state.
The British Veterinary Association has warned that a no-deal Brexit will lead to pet owners facing longer waits (pdf) to get their animal cleared for travel, higher costs for the required vaccination, treatments and health certificates each time they leave the UK.
This comes at a time when many veterinary practices are already experiencing worker shortages and recruitment problems, it says. The advice is to book well ahead if you’re planning to take your pet abroad.
Mobile phone roaming charges
In a sentence Phone companies say they have no plans to reintroduce charges – but don’t rule them out either.
Arguably the EU’s most significant consumer benefit of recent years has been the abolition of mobile phone roaming charges. The EU first capped then finally scrapped roaming charges across mainland Europe in June 2017.
It means EU citizens can use their mobile in another EU state as if they are at home. Call plans that typically include 500 free minutes and 2GB data can be used abroad without incurring extra charges, which, before the EU’s intervention, regularly cost more than the flight to your destination.
But if the UK crashes out of the EU at the end of March, the culture secretary, Jeremy Wright, has confirmed there will be nothing to stop mobile operators reimposing the charges.
So hooked on smartphones have we all become, a return of roaming charges might be considered one of the worst impacts of leaving the EU.
The biggest providers – Vodafone, O2 and EE – confirm they have no plans to reintroduce them on 1 April, but equally have not ruled out their reintroduction. Only Three has promised not to reinstate them irrespective of the Brexit outcome.
Currently, EU mobile phone networks are not allowed to add extra charges to calls made by customers of other EU operators. That ends with a no deal.
O2 says: “We will be working closely with the government and other European operators to try and protect the current arrangements, so our customers can continue to enjoy free EU roaming.”
Ministers have said the government will legislate to put a £45-a-month limit on the amount that could be charged for mobile data abroad. There will also be requirements for customers to be informed when they have reached 80% and 100% of their data allowances.
A future trade deal with the EU would include the abolition of, or limits to, mobile roaming charges, they have said.
Pensions and investments
In a sentence Retirees to Europe should worry about the future of their state pension, but private pension issues were largely resolved this week.
The 200,000 British citizens aged over 65 who have retired to the EU – half to Spain – still don’t know if their UK state pension will be uprated every year after we leave the EU, or whether they’ll join the “frozen’ pensioners” in Canada and Australia who have seen their pensions shrivel.
The government has committed to uprate pensions across the EU in 2019 and 2020, but after that will only go ahead if there is a deal. It says: “We would wish to continue uprating pensions but would take decisions in light of whether, as we would hope and expect, reciprocal arrangements with the EU are in place.”
If they are not uprated, it could leave retirees in poverty and force a return to the UK. Someone retiring to Australia 20 years ago still receives the basic weekly UK state pension rate of £66.75 prevailing at the time.
But there’s better news on private pensions. For months the UK pension industry has been in limbo around whether they can look after a private pension taken out in the UK if the person has retired to the EU. But this week the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) in Frankfurt said providers could continue to operate much as before, even with no deal.
Steven Cameron of Aegon says: “There were concerns that UK providers might have been unable to service the policies of such individuals. We very much hope EU regulators will confirm they are following EIOPA’s recommendations and will not treat these policies as ‘cross border’ which should allow servicing to continue.”
Investments in funds, such as equity Isas, should be unaffected with a “temporary permissions regime” in place even if we crash out.
The much bigger picture is what happens to stock markets and sterling in the event of a cliff-edge withdrawal. Sterling remains 12% below the level it was against the euro before the referendum, and currency dealers expect it to fall below €1.10 and $1.20 – and possibly much more – if there is no deal.
In a sentence The EU-mandated £85,000 safety net will remain and the vast majority of UK account holders should be unaffected.
The immediate impact of no deal on UK bank account holders is likely to be minimal, but the cost of card payments between the UK and the EU is likely to rise and processing times become slower.
Banks report that they have been receiving calls from worried Brits living in the EU who regularly access their UK-based bank account. Will a hard Brexit mean they can no longer use these accounts? The banks are assuring customers that they can continue to use them and transfer money overseas as they did before.
Even if a bank appears to be from an EU country, there are few issues. For example, both Santander UK and Bank of Ireland (UK) are domiciled in the UK for regulatory purposes and post Brexit will be treated exactly the same as Lloyds or Barclays.
However, there are those who are domiciled outside the UK and use EU membership to “passport” their services to the UK. But even here agreement has been reached, with a temporary permissions regime allowing them to carry on in the UK for three years after Brexit, and apply for authorisation during that time.
The £85,000 protection for deposit accounts is partly the product of EU directives.
But the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS) says: “FSCS protection for UK-based customers of UK authorised firms will not change, regardless of whether the UK leaves with or without a deal.”
This article was published in The Guardian
The British Government continues to seek a way in which the UK can leave the EU in an orderly manner and without undue delay. In the meantime, the French Government is publishing more information about what a no-deal would mean for British nationals in France. We want to share this information with you, so we will be emailing updates to you as and when we can.
This update covers the French Ministry of Interior’s decree about entry, residence, social rights and professional activity in France for British nationals in the event of a no-deal departure from the EU. The second part of this newsletter covers the recognition of UK driving licences in France in the event of no-deal.
On British nationals’ residency in France
We are pleased to share with you a translation of the French Ministry of Interior’s decree. This has been done by a legal translator, but remains an unofficial document. In case of any discrepancies or differences in interpretation, the French original will prevail.
The decree is meant to be read alongside the ordonnance that came out on 6 February — an unofficial translation of this ordonnance is available here. We will pull the information from both documents together so that we can update our Living in France guide. It is important to get this right so it will take us a few days.
In the meantime, here is a summary of the decree’s provisions. As you can tell, it’s not definitive and there are a number of points, some of which we’ve flagged below, where we are seeking more information from the French authorities.
- The grace period to get your appropriate status for residency is confirmed as one (1) year following Exit day. During this year, citizens already residing in France on Exit day will see their residency and associated work and social rights maintained.
- There will be a six (6) month period following Exit day to submit your application for the new residence status. You will need to apply for a new card even if you have an EU card (permanent or other). We have raised the issue of insufficient capacity at some préfectures and understand that the process will be simplified, including to reduce visits to the préfecture where possible.
- The application fee will be €119 for the first card issued. There is no information about renewals.
- Where there is a financial resource requirement for certain residency cards (e.g. the “visitor” card for “non-actifs or retired”), the decree says that this will take into account individual circumstances, including whether you own your property or stay in your home for free. It also indicates that the resources requirement will not exceed the basic level of the RSA benefit. We know that this is a really important issue for many of you, and we continue to press for further detail and the most generous approach possible.
- Applicants for certain cards will need to show that they have health insurance. However, the decree does not specify what types of cover will count as health insurance for this purpose – so we are raising this urgently with the French government.
- To get one of the new residence cards, you will need:
- a valid passport
- a recent, passport-type photo (3.5 × 4.5 cm)
- current carte de séjour if you have one, or
- proof of the date you moved to France if you do not currently hold a carte de séjour.
- PLUS further papers depending on the type of card you apply for. For example, if you are applying for a “salarié” or worker status, you will need to provide your work contract and a recent payslip (not more than three months old).
On UK driving licences in France
On 3 April, the French authorities published more details about the use of UK driving licences in France in the event of the UK leaving the EU without a deal. This judgment (“arrêté”) is meant to be read alongside the judgment of 8 February 1999 on the recognition of European driving licences. Here is a summary of the provisions of both and what they mean in practice.
- The UK driving licences of British nationals resident in France before the UK leaves the EU will be recognised in the same way as they are now, including if we leave without a deal. This covers people currently resident in France and those who relocate here up to the date of a no-deal exit. There is no limit to this recognition, but we would recommend that residents exchange their licences at some point in the future.
- In the event of a no-deal, British nationals who move to France after we leave the EU will have to change their UK driving licence for a French one within a year of arrival in France. Please see the conditions for converting a licence below.
- However, people who hold British licences that were initially issued in the British Virgin Islands, the Falkland Islands, the Faroe Islands, Gibraltar, the Republic of Korea or Zimbabwe will not be able to convert their licences and will have to take a French driving test to obtain a French licence. The one year grace period still applies.
- Students will be able to continue to drive on their British driving licence for as long as they are registered students in France.
The judgment of 8 April 1999 defines the conditions for recognising and exchanging licences. These conditions stipulate that one cannot hold both a French driving licence and a driving licence of another EU/European economic zone country at the same time. In order to exchange a British driving licence for a French one, the British driving licence must:
- Be valid.
- Belong to a person having reached the minimum French age for that licence.
- Respect any specific conditions attached to the licence (e.g. restrictions linked to disability, use of prescription lenses, etc.).
- Be held by someone who is not subject to driving restrictions, suspension or similar in the country which issued the initial licence.
- Not have been obtained while the holder was barred from driving in France.
Please note that French driving licences will still be valid for use in the UK after EU exit.
Although not covered in this judgment, we continue to be told that British tourists will need to carry a certified translation of their UK driving licence with them or carry an International Driving Permit. We are pressing for more details on this.
A reminder again that the provisions mentioned above will apply if the UK leaves the EU without a deal. Other provisions will apply if we leave with a deal.
As soon as we have updated our Living in France guide, we will send round an alert. You can register for an alert by clicking here. We will also be running another Facebook Q&A and we will update you on social media and GOV.UK with the date.
DuckDuckGo a search engine that puts privacy first
DuckDuckGo a search engine that puts privacy first is an Internet search engine that emphasizes protecting searchers’ privacy and avoiding the filter bubble of personalized search results.
Are you concerned about how much data is being tracked when you search on Internet?
Are you fed up with being bombarded by targeted adverts when you open a webpage?
Let’s have a look at these issues and what you can do to combat this.
You may not be surprised to learn that Google, and other search engines have all of your search history stored up.
You can delete it though – If you would prefer not have a huge list of search queries stored up, then connect to Google’s history page, click Menu (the three vertical dots) and then click on Advanced – All Time – Delete.
If you want to stop Google tracking your searches for ever, connect to the activity controls page and toggle tracking off.
That’s it, you are now free from tracking!
Not only do they record your searches, but Google also keeps an eye on your location.
Google’s location history, or timeline page, serves up a Google Map and allows you to select specific dates and times and see where you were.
The accuracy depends largely on whether you were signed into your Google account and if you had a phone or tablet with you.
How you can delete it : When you visit the timeline page you can hit the settings cog in the bottom right-hand corner of the screen and select delete all from there.
There’s also the option to pause your location history by clicking the button in the bottom left of the screen.
If you’ve ever wanted to remove your records, virtually [sic] from the internet, a Swedish website Deseat.me makes use of your Google account to do just that.
Deseat.me can show you all your online and social media accounts and lets you delete yourself from them.
How to delete it : Go to Deseat.me and enter your Gmail address.
It will bring up all the online accounts linked to that email address and allow you to delete them.
But for now, let’s look at a way that you can still search the Internet without your data being tracked or being bombarded by targeted advertising from Google or other search engines :
DuckDuckGo distinguishes itself from other search engines by not profiling its users and by deliberately showing all users the same search results for a given search term, and emphasizes returning the best results, rather than the most results, generating those results from over 400 individual sources, including crowdsourced sites such as Wikipedia, and other search engines like Bing, Yahoo!, and Yandex.
The company is based in Paoli, Pennsylvania, in Greater Philadelphia.
Some of DuckDuckGo’s source code is free software hosted at GitHub under the Apache 2.0 License, but the core is proprietary. The company registered a shortened URL redirect at ddg.co on 20 September 2013. On 21 May 2014, DuckDuckGo launched a redesigned version that focused on smarter answers and a more refined look. The new version added often requested features such as images, local search, auto-suggest and more.
On 18 September 2014, Apple included DuckDuckGo in its Safari browser as an optional search engine. On 10 November 2014, Mozilla added DuckDuckGo as a search option to Firefox 33.1. On 30 May 2016, The Tor Project, Inc made DuckDuckGo the default search engine for Tor Browser 6.0.
DuckDuckGo was founded in 2008 by Gabriel Weinberg, an entrepreneur who previously launched Names Database, a now-defunct social network. Initially self-funded by Weinberg, DuckDuckGo is now advertising-supported but the user has the option to disable ads.
The search engine is written in Perl and runs on nginx, FreeBSD and Linux. DuckDuckGo is built primarily upon search APIs from various vendors. Because of this, TechCrunch characterized the service as a “hybrid” search engine. At the same time, it produces its own content pages, and thus is similar to Mahalo, Kosmix and SearchMe.
We didn’t invest in it because we thought it would beat Google. We invested in it because there is a need for a private search engine. We did it for the Internet anarchists, people that hang out on Reddit and Hacker News.
Fred Wilson, 2012 TechCrunch Disrupt Conference in New York
In a lengthy profile in November 2012, the Washington Post indicated that searches on DuckDuckGo numbered up to 45,000,000 per month in October 2012. The article concluded “Weinberg’s non-ambitious goals make him a particularly odd and dangerous competitor online. He can do almost everything that Google or Bing can’t because it could damage their business models, and if users figure out that they like the DuckDuckGo way better, Weinberg could damage the big boys without even really trying. It’s asymmetrical digital warfare, and his backers at Union Square Ventures say Google is vulnerable.”
At its keynote speech at WWDC 2014, Apple announced that DuckDuckGo would be included as an option for search on both iOS 8 and OS X Yosemite.
On 21 May 2014, DuckDuckGo officially released the redesigned version that focused on smarter answers and a more refined look. The new version added many new features such as images, local search, auto-suggest, weather, recipes and more.
in July 2016, DuckDuckGo officially announced the extension of its partnership with Yahoo! that brought new features to all users of the search engine, including date filtering of results and additional site links. It also partners with Bing, Yandex and Wikipedia to produce results or make use of features offered. The company also confirmed that it does not share user information with partner companies, as has always been its policy.
DuckDuckGo’s results are a compilation of “over 400” sources, including Yahoo! Search BOSS; Wikipedia; Wolfram Alpha; Bing; its own Web crawler (the DuckDuckBot); and others. It also uses data from crowdsourcedsites, including Wikipedia, to populate “Zero-click Info” boxes – grey boxes above the results that display topic summaries and related topics.
Weinberg has refined the quality of his search engine results by deleting search results for companies he believes are content mills, like Demand Media’s eHow, which publishes 4000 articles per day produced by paid freelance writers, which Weinberg says is, “…low-quality content designed specifically to rank highly in Google’s search index.” DuckDuckGo also filters pages with substantial advertising.
In addition to the indexed search results, DuckDuckGo displays relevant results, called Instant Answers, on top of the search page. These Instant Answers are collected from either 3rd party APIs or static data sources like text files. The Instant Answers are called zeroclickinfo because the intention behind these is to provide what the user is searching for on the search result page itself so that the user does not have to click any results to find what they are looking for. As of August 20, 2016, there are 989 Instant Answers active.
The Instant Answers are open source. They are maintained on Github and anyone can build or work on them.
In August 2010, DuckDuckGo introduced anonymous searching, including an exit enclave, for its search engine traffic using Tor network and enabling access through a Tor hidden service. This allows anonymity by routing traffic through a series of encrypted relays.
In 2011, DuckDuckGo introduced voice search for users of the Google Chrome voice search extension.
DuckDuckGo includes “!Bang” keywords, which give users the ability to search on specific third-party websites – using the site’s own search engine if applicable. As of 2017, approx. 10,000 “bangs” for a diverse range of Internet sites are available.
DuckDuckGo has a mobile app available for iOS and Android which forces websites to use HTTPS, blocks web trackers, and rates sites based on their privacy practices.The service, released in January 2018, is also available as a browser extension for Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Apple Safari.
DuckDuckGo earns revenue by serving ads from the Yahoo–Bing search alliance network, and through affiliate relationships with Amazon and eBay.
In a June 2011 article, Harry McCracken of Time magazine commended DuckDuckGo, comparing it to his favorite hamburger restaurant, In-N-Out Burger:
It feels a lot like early Google, with a stripped-down home page. Just as In-N-Out doesn’t have lattes or Asian salads or sundaes or scrambled eggs, DDG doesn’t try to do news or blogs or books or images. There’s no auto-completion or instant results. It just offers core Web search—mostly the “ten blue links” approach that’s still really useful, no matter what its critics say…As for the quality, I’m not saying that Weinberg has figured out a way to return more relevant results than Google’s mighty search team. But DuckDuckGo…is really good at bringing back useful sites. It all feels meaty and straightforward and filler-free…
The barebones approach cited in his quote have since changed; DuckDuckGo now has auto-completion and instant results for example. McCracken included the site in Time’s list of “50 Best Websites of 2011”.
Thom Holwerda, who reviewed the search engine for OSNews, praised its privacy features and shortcuts to site-specific searches as well as criticizing Google for “tracking pretty much everything you do”, particularly because of the risk of such information being subject to a U.S. government subpoena.
In 2012, in response to accusations that it was a monopoly, Google identified DuckDuckGo as a competitor.
Weinberg was reportedly “pleased and entertained” by that acknowledgment.